Contents: Letter to Governor , Fish Culture, Atlantic Salmon, Landlocked Salmon, Brook Trout, Brown Trout, Smelts, Fish Hatcheries, Fishways, Special Close Times, Large Game, Taxidermists , Game Birds , Financial Statement.



December 31, 1895.

To His Excellency, Henry B. Cleaves, Governor of Maine: The Commissioners of Inland Fisheries and Game have the honor to present to your Excellency their annual report for the year 1895, as required by added Section 75, Chapter 40, of the Revised Statutes ; (see Section 2, Chapter 104, Public Laws of 1895) and by Resolve 124, approved March 26,1895.

Commissioners of Inland Fisheries and Game.





This popular and growing interest had our early consideration and plans were matured to largely increase the product of our fish hatching stations for 1895. There is a very large and increasing, demand for landlocked salmon and the stocking of all suitable waters in the State with these most valuable game and food fishes. In pursuance of our policy and to meet such demand we constructed a new weir at North Auburn in which to take the parent fish, and also a new weir and station was established at Webb's pond in the town of Weld. With these new plants supplementing that on Crooked River we expected to double the product of any previous year, and no doubt we should have succeeded had it not been for the extreme drought which visited us in the fall of 1895.

The water in Crooked River fell so low that the fish could not ascend to our weir in large numbers, the result being that at that station, where we had the year before easily taken 700,000 eggs, only 300,000 were obtained in the fall of 1895, and this was only accomplished by increased diligence and labor. The same conditions were present at Lake Auburn, so that but few fish, on account of the extremely low water, were able to ascend to the new weir at North Auburn. The fish, however, appeared in considerable numbers at the outlet near East Auburn and by seines and nets and other extemporized means we were able to capture many of them, so that we obtained in all at Lake Auburn 275,000 landlocked salmon eggs, and notwithstanding these unfavorable conditions there were taken at Webb's pond nearly 100,000, the result being



that we obtained in all about the same number of eggs in the fall of 1895 as were taken in 1894 on Crooked river, and about one-half of the product which we could reasonably expect under more favorable conditions.

These conditions did not so largely effect the amount of trout eggs taken, as most of them were secured at our hatchery on Townsend Brook at East Auburn, which is supplied almost entirely by springs and therefore did not feel the effects of the drought, so that our trout eggs will nearly equal the amount taken last year without increased facilities.


As in former years our stock of Atlantic salmon eggs are obtained at the United States Fish Culture Station at Craig's Brook in the town of Orland. The parent fish are purchased by the superintendent of said station from the weirs on the Penobscot. The State of Maine contribute to the expense of purchasing, caring for, taking eggs, etc., five hundred dollars each year and share in the product in the proportion that its contribution bears to the total expense of the entire operation. Our proportion of eggs taken in the autumn of 1894 was two hundred thousand, of these there were shipped in February, 1895, fifty thousand eggs to the Caribou hatchery where they were hatched in April and planted as fry in the following June in brooks and streams tributary to the Aroostook river. The remaining one hundred and fifty thousand was, by special arrangement with the superintendent, kept, cared for, and hatched at said U. S. Station in Orland and were planted as fry in the month of June, 1895, in the tributaries of the Penobscot River. In the autumn of 1895, the number of Atlantic salmon eggs taken at said station and assigned to the State of Maine in proportion to its contribution, which was increased to seven hundred and fifty dollars for 1895, is three hundred and eighteen thousand, or a little more than one-third of all the Atlantic salmon eggs taken in Maine, and of these three hundred and eighteen thousand, one hundred thousand will be shipped to Caribou hatchery



and the remaining two hundred and eighteen thousand to the Enfield hatchery, and from these will be obtained, either in form of fry or fed fish, our stock of Atlantic salmon for 1896. The effort made by the United States and Maine to maintain Atlantic salmon culture and so prevent the entire extinction of this valuable food fish along our Atlantic coast has been rewarded with fair success. Occasionally by some unfavorable condition of weather, or temperature of water; or some epidemic which has attacked the young fish in some stages of development, and which was new to those best informed in fish culture, and hence its treatment being largely experimental, the road to best results has been an up grade. To avoid these difficulties and to utilize and make practical the experience of the past, new methods are to be introduced and new plants for the taking of the parent fish established by the United States.

We have in Maine now but few rivers or streams frequented by the Atlantic salmon, the Penobscot being the principal, and the Aroostook river furnishing an important second, while the Dennys and some other smaller rivers invite a few of these fish. In 1895, the Dominion of Canada through its proper Commissioners constructed a fishway at Woodstock near the mouth of the Meduxnekeag river which drains the southeastern portion of Aroostook county and which was formerly a fine salmon stream; it is the purpose of the Commissioners to restock this river in 1896. Movements are on foot to open the Mousam river in the county of York to Atlantic salmon by the construction of a system of fishways, through the obstructions in that river if found feasible. Whether or not any effort to restore profitable salmon fisheries on these last mentioned rivers shall be a success is largely a question of experiment, but should not be abandoned without a fair trial under favorable conditions.




In February, 1895, there was placed at seven hatcheries 615,000 landlocked salmon eggs, as follows : Lake Auburn hatchery, 175,000 ; Caribou hatchery, 50,000. Kineo hatchery, 40,000 ; King and Bartlett hatchery, 10,000 ; Sebago hatchery, 275,000 ; Rangeley hatchery, 25,000 ; Oakland hatchery, 40,000 ;

The product of these eggs was planted as fed fish in the autumn of 1895, as follows, from Lake Auburn hatchery, in the following waters ; Mousam lake, York ; Moose pond, Somerset; Clearwater pond, Franklin ; Sweet's pond, Franklin; Range pond, Androscoggin Bear pond, Androscoggin; Alfords lake, Knox ; Dyer's Androscoggin pond, Lincoln; Rowe pond, Somerset ; Square pond, York; Duck pond, Cumberland; Hayden lake, Somerset; Embden pond, Somerset ; Megunticook lake, Knox ; Lake Hebron, Piscataquis ; Kezar pond, Oxford; George pond, Knox ; Howard's pond, Oxford ; Campbell's pond, Lincoln ; Sandy (Ledge) pond, Waldo ; Freedom pond, Waldo ; Anasagunticook lake, Oxford; Brettun's lake, Androscoggin ; Taylor lake, Androscoggin; Hancock lake, Cumberland; East Machias waters, Washington; Center pond, Piscataquis ; Newport pond, Penobscot ; Big Island lake, Franklin ; Pemaquid lake, Lincoln ; Sunnebec lake, Knox ; Sand lake, Cumberland ; Hermon pond, Penobscot. The balance of 8,000 in Lake Auburn.

From Sebago hatchery, in Sebago lake and waters tributary thereto. From Caribou hatchery, in Squawpan lake, Portage lake, Square lake, and Madawaska lake, equally. The stock at this hatchery, both eggs and young fish, was largely depleted by an epidemic ; ten thousand having died in the hatchery and of the balance which were placed in new feeding station in both troughs and artificial ponds continued to suffer from disease until the entire stock was reduced to ten thousand at date of planting. Every precaution was taken and effort made to stay the process of this disease but



with only partial success. We are unable to trace it to its source, although several theories have been suggested, the most plausible perhaps is that the plant was new and that the soil from which the main reservoir and dam were built and the artificial ponds constructed contained sour muck and partially decomposed vegetable matter which, being brought brought to the surface, under the action of air and light, impregnated the water with unhealthy acids or gases which affected the fish.

The disease showed itself in a colorless fungus which covered their gills and in some instances appeared in minute globules over their entire outer surface. The most successful treatment under these conditions was the use of the common salt bath in feeding troughs.

We believe that this will not occur again from the same cause, as the action of air and frost have had the effect of sweetening and purifying these artificial ponds and reservoirs. This epidemic seemed to be new in the history of fish culture as experts were unable to furnish a parallel in their experience as fish culturists.

One thing connected with this is very peculiar, to wit, that while the landlocked salmon were affected, the brook trout in neighboring ponds in the same hatchery and under the same conditions did not suffer at all but thrived and grew beyond precedent, so that when they were planted in the fall many of them were five and six inches in length and had remained healthy and vigorous from the time of hatching.

The entire product of landlocked salmon from Rangeley hatchery was planted in Rangeley waters ; and that from Kineo, in Moosehead lake and tributaries. From the Oakland hatchery these fish were planted in Ellis pond by local association. That from King and Bartlett hatchery was planted in lakes by that name or their tributaries.


In February, 1895, there was placed at nine hatcheries eight hundred thousand brook trout eggs, as follows : Lake Auburn hatchery, 300,000; Sebago hatchery, 100,000; Cari-



bou hatchery, 100,000 ; Rangeley hatchery, 100,000 ; Kineo hatchery, 75,000 ; Oakland hatchery, 50,000 ; King & Bartlett, hatchery, 40,000 ; Big Island hatchery, 15,000 ; Hartland hatchery, 20,000.

The product of these eggs was planted largely in the waters of the localities of the several hatcheries. From the Lake Auburn hatchery fed fish were liberated in Lake Hebron, and Little Houston pond in Piscataquis county ; Howard's pond in, Oxford ; and Podunk pond in Franklin county ; the remainder was planted as fed fish in Lake Auburn from which the entire eight hundred thousand eggs were obtained. From Sebago hatchery, in Sebago waters. From Caribou hatchery, in, Squawpan lake, Portage lake, Madawaska lake, Caribou stream, and in tributaries of the Meduxnekeag river. From, Rangeley hatchery, in Rangeley waters.

From Moosehead, lake, in Moosehead lake waters. Those at Oakland, in, Kennebec waters by local association, as follows : Ellis pond, North pond, Maranacook lake, Great pond, East pond,. Cobbosseecontee lake. From King and Bartlett, in the waters and tributaries to lakes of that name. From Big island, in local waters. From Hartland, in Moose pond and tributaries. Two thousand brook trout were obtained from the United States hatchery at Orland and liberated in Lake Megunticook in Camden, Knox county.

Fed fish planted in Maine waters by the United States from Green lake U. S. F. C. station in 1895 were as follows : Varnam's or North pond, Farmington, Temple and Wilton; White's pond, Penobscot ; Wood's pond Bluehill ; Hadlock's Lower and Upper pond, North East Harbor ; 5,000 to 7,000, acres, Waterville ; Embden pond, North Anson ; Moose pond, Hartland ; Duck and Junior lakes,_____ ; Belfast waters, Belfast ; Swan lake, Belfast ; Jordan's pond, Bar Harbor; Studley's pond and Goose river, Waldoboro ; Belfast waters, Belfast ; Works pond ; Sweet's pond, Farmington.




This species of foreign fish, being also known as "German trout" and " von behr trout," were introduced into the United States nine years ago. They are to Europe what the brook trout is to America. It has been given considerable attention in several of the states, notably so in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Missouri, Michigan, Wisconsin, Nebraska, and Colorado, all of which are states where trout abound. As its scientific name (Salmo fario) would seem to denote, it is a native of clear, cold streams and lakes and is hardy in character. They are not migratory in habits and thrive well in waters suitable for the brook trout and even in water of a higher temperature. They are strong, vigorous, and a rapid grower, having obtained a size, in the nine years of their presence in American waters, of over thirteen pounds. Their vigorous, hardy qualities were tested by our exhibit of these fish with others at the Maine State Fair at Lewiston in 1895 where they endured the confinement, changed conditions, and varying temperature of water during the entire fair better than any other variety on exhibition.

Professor Race, superintendent of U. S. F. C. Station, Green Lake, Maine, in speaking of these fish says, "Its food consists principally of insects and larvae, worms, mollusks, and other small fishes, although like all the trout family it is fond of the eggs of other fish. Its spawning habits are very similar to those of the brook trout. As regards its game and food qualities there can be no question as it has long been known as one of the game fishes, particularly for capture with artificial flies." The New York Fish Commissioners in report for 1893, page 30, state, "They grow rapidly and are as good a table fish as the native trout."

The latest and hence the most reliable information relating to these fish is contained in a letter from Hon. A. N. Cheney, fish culturist, of Glen Falls, N. Y., in charge of fish culture of that state with whom we had correspondence relating to fish and game, and whose letter we quote in full, as follows :



GLEN FALLS, N. Y., January 27, 1896.

Hon. Thos. H. Wentworth:

DEAR SIR : Many thanks for the information contained in yours of 25th, concerning the deer. It will be used in our report, a copy of which I will send you when it is issued. As to the brown trout, this trout grows so much more rapidly than our native brook trout (it has grown in this country in nine years to a weight of over 13 lbs), that I have discouraged putting it into streams with the native unless the streams are quite large and there is an abundance of natural food. It is a trout for the rivers and lakes of a higher temperature than ordinarily suited to our native trout. I think it is no more destructive or cannibalistic than our own trout, except that growing larger and faster it has greater opportunities.

In the stream on which our Calidonia hatchery is situated, perhaps the best in the state for the character of its water and fish food, there are brook, brown and rainbow trout and all three species are planted annually, but both the rainbow and brown trout are such rapid growers that occasionally the big fellows are netted out to preserve the smaller ones. We hatch and plant the brown trout largely, but are careful to select the waters for them. This year I propose to plant some brown trout in two or three ponds containing the small pond pickerel, as I believe if yearlings are planted they will hold their own against the pickerel as the Loch Leven trout does against the pike in Loch Leven in Scotland. I shall also plant the brown trout in some Adirondack lakes where the pike has obtained a footing and where black bass are asked for and then try and keep the pike down by netting as is done in Europe and give the trout a chance. This, you see, is largely experiment, but the brown trout has had a name given to it that it does not deserve.

Yours very truly,




From this discussion it will appear that while these fish are a valuable species for some of our Maine waters, caution should be observed as to their planting. We have some large rivers and streams as well as lakes and ponds in the older portions of the state now containing pickerel, bass, perch, and other less valuable fish where this species could be profitably introduced; and these waters may be more easily and profitably stocked with these fish than with the native brook trout.

Their culture and planting in this country is still largely in the experimental stage and we should be cautious about their indiscriminate introduction into our best trout waters until more is known about them. We learn from information furnished from said Green Lake Station, that the United States introduced a few of these trout into Hart's pond near Orland, and into Great Brook, in 1891 ; in 1892 they were planted in Toddy pond ; and in 1893, five hundred of these trout were furnished to individual applicants but the place of planting is not given.

During the years 1893-4 they were planted in the following waters : Hart's pond, Branch pond, Rocky pond, Phillips pond, Forth pond, Lidenspecker pond, Rogers pond, Big Tunk pond, Patten's pond, and Green lake ; and in 1894-5 more were planted in Branch pond, and in Weston pond for the first time.

This was done without the knowledge or consent of the Maine Commissioners and on learning of the fact we immediately called the attention of the United States Commissioner to our statute forbidding the introduction of certain fish without such consent. He courteously acknowledged our right to control this matter and agreed that no fish except the brook trout, landlocked salmon and Atlantic salmon should hereafter be planted in Maine waters without first obtaining permission from the Maine Commissioners.

It will be observed that the introduction of these fish into Maine waters by the United States has been sufficient for the purpose of testing their quality and desirability which will be watched with interest. We reared at Lake Auburn hatchery about six thousand of these trout as fed fish and



from that station they planted in the fall of 1895 in Range pond, Poland ; Androscoggin pond, in Leeds and Wayne ; and Sabattus pond, in Green and Wales. These ponds were in such close proximity to the Androscoggin and Little Androscoggin rivers below the Lewiston Falls that they cannot reach other waters and distribute themselves over any large system of lakes and streams. We now have at the Lake Auburn hatchery 40,000 brown trout eggs.


Smelt eggs introduced in the spring of 1895 : Three boxes to Rangeley waters, one box to Parmacheenee lake, one box to Seven ponds, one box to King and Bartlett lake, one box to Big Houston lake, one box to Etna pond, one box to Twin lakes, one box to Squawpan lake, one box to Madawaska lake, one box to Auburn lake.

Smelts planted in waters where none were found before appear in large numbers the third year, fully developed and running up the brooks to deposit their spawn.


By chapter 124, resolves of legislature approved March 26, 1895, authority was given to the Commissioners of Inland fisheries and game to purchase or lease real estate, in the name of the state, for the purpose of maintaining hatcheries for fish culture. By virtue of this authority the Commissioners purchased real estate of sufficient extent at Caribou in Aroostook county, and improved it by dam reservoir, and artificial ponds sufficiently for feeding purposes for the season of 1895. This is a fine plant on a spring brook affording an abundance of water of such degree of purity and temperature as is admirably adapted to fish culture. It now has a capacity sufficient to feed three hundred thousand fish and can be easily increased to double that number. They also leased from the Lake Auburn Fish Protective Association their plant oil Townsend brook at East Auburn.


This hatchery is finely located, and the water supply is entirely from numerous springs in the vicinity, which furnish an abundance of pure water. The feeding capacity of this plant is five to six hundred thousand young fish. It was leased from said association without money or other consideration as rentals except provision for the maintenance of the plant and the reasonable stocking the lake into which Townsend brook flows, and this not beyond the rate required by the general statute. This plant has been improved and enlarged during the year and is the most important station for both trout and salmon culture in the State. The lease is for twenty years with a provision for its renewal at the end of the term for a like time upon the same terms ; so that it is virtually a perpetual lease.

The State now owns or controls four fish culture stations, to wit, Lake Auburn, Caribou, Sebago at Edes' Falls, and Enfield at the outlet of Cold Stream pond. The last mentioned is a small plant, not suited for feeding purposes, and is used principally in the Atlantic salmon culture. The Sebago hatchery should be relocated and enlarged as its present water supply is insufficient to meet the necessities of the plant in dry seasons. With the enlargement of this plant and the establishment of one othei in the central portion of the State, our facilities for fish culture would be sufficient to meet present demands.


The ice freshet in the spring of 1895 carried out the fish-way at Caribou. This was replaced by a new structure and put in condition for the salmon run of that season, and is much more satisfactory than the former way which it replaced. At Princeton the old fishway, being out of repair and ineffective, was removed and a new and more modern way put in its place according to plans furnished by the Commissioners. A new fishway was constructed at Grand Lake stream by the owners of the dam at that place and is said to be effective although it has not been examined, tested or accepted by the Commissioners. On the Dennys river at Lincoln's mill in



Dennysville the old fishway was abandoned and a new one constructed, under the direction of the Commissioners, by the Dennysville Lumber Company. On the Pemaquid river at Weeks' mill dam, fishway was repaired ; and at Hatch's mill a sluice-way was put in which takes the place of or is a substitute for the fishway. On the Georges river at Warren, fishways in both lower and upper dams have been changed and repaired ; and at Waldoboro on the Medomak, fishways rebuilt ; and at North Waldoboro, both fishways repaired.

Arrangements were completed with dam owners for the construction of a new fishway at Songo lock at the mouth of Songo river, and these arrangements will be carried out when the dam and lock at that place are rebuilt and repaired the coming season. All this has been accomplished without resort to any forceful or legal measures. All parties have kindly and gladly acceded to the wishes of the Commissioners and in nearly every case have shown a personal interest in this feature of our department work.


By chapter 104, Public Laws of 1895, authority was given the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries and Game, after due notice and hearing, as therein set forth, to regulate the times and places in which and the circumstances under which game and inland fish may be taken. By virtue of this authority several hearings have been held, and action taken and rules and regulations established in three different cases, to wit, Quimby pond in Rangeley, restricting the number of fish to be taken at one time to fifteen, for a term of four years from July 4, 1895.

Goose river stream in the towns of Rockport and Camden, all fishing is prohibited in said stream or its tributaries for a term of three years from April 30, 1896, and on the tributaries to the Megalloway river in Oxford county, north of and including Abbott brook in Lincoln plantation in said county, and in that part of the Megalloway river known as Parmacheenee Falls, all fishing is prohibited for a term of four years from the thirtieth day of April, 1896.




It is beyond successful contradiction that the deer is increasingly plenty in our State and with reasonable effort for its protection must continue abundant. During the open time of 1895, nineteen hundred and twenty-one deer were shipped by the American Express Company from different stations in the State of Maine. This is nearly double the amount of these animals shipped by the same company during the open time of 1894. By an arrangement between the railroad companies and said express company all fish and game are transported by express, so that the figures given cover all shipments by rail or boat. When we remember that in 1895 the number of deer to be taken were reduced to two, or two-thirds of the number that might be lawfully taken in 1894, the claim that shipments of 1895 were double that of 1894 is a conservative one.

We believe, from the best information we have been able to collect and from our own observation and experience, that these shipments represent two-fifths of all the deer killed in the open time of '95 ; that other two-fifths were taken by our own people and conveyed to their homes or sold in our domestic markets ; and that another fifth was consumed by hunters and sportsmen at the camps or while on hunting trips. These calculations give us about forty-eight hundred deer taken during the year. When we remember that there are at least twenty thousand deer in the State of Maine and that their natural annual increase is at least sixty per cent we not only account for the constant increase of these animals but dissipate any fear as to future supply.

From the same sources of information we learn that the shipment of caribou for 1895 was double that of 1894. These shipments represent a larger per cent of the whole number of these animals taken than the shipment of deer, for but few of them were consumed by our people, or in the forests, and most of them passed through the express offices. The whole



number of these animals shipped was one hundred and five for the open season of the current year. And it will also be remembered that in 1894 a person might lawfully take two caribou while in 1895 he could take but one. The indications therefore, seem to be in favor of an increase of caribou, but no definite rule can be applied to these animals as to increase or decrease in any given territory as they are migratory and range large stretches of country, roaming from Nova Scotia to Alaska.

S. L. Crosby, Esq., the leading taxidermist at Bangor and who is familiar with this subject, in a paper read by him before the Maine Sportsman's Fish and Game Association at its last annual session, said, "The caribou is a roving, migratory creature, here to-day and perhaps miles awaytomorrow and I well know that in some sections of the State, where they were formerly abundant, they are now very scarce ; but they were not killed off, they merely changed their feeding grounds. This season we have received fifty-one heads for mounting as against twenty-eight last season, and in ten days three of my friends who hunted around Mt. Ktaadn, counted over seventy-five caribou, and in various other localities old hunters assure me that they have never before seen them more abundant. Of course, owing to their roving, nature, the supply will vary but rest assured that there will be good caribou hunting in Maine for many years to come."

The number of moose shipped in the open time of 1895 was one hundred and three which is also double the number shipped in 1894. These one hundred and three were all bull moose because no other could be lawfully taken, while in 1894 all varieties of the moose might be so taken. As touching this subject we again quote from Mr. Crosby who in the same paper above referred to said,

“Never have so many fine moose heads been brought out in one season by sportsmen, but that there are plenty left, in the woods, I am thoroughly satisfied, as numerous hunting parties report seeing on a month's trip all the way from twelve to twenty-eight different moose ; while a prominent business man here in Bangor, who successfully hunted and killed a magnificent bull in November



last, assured me that he and his guide started at least fifty moose in two weeks' time, and sportsmen who have hunted in other localities all report the same thing — that moose are on the increase. It is very gratifying to note that many cow and calf moose were seen in the summer months by fishing and camping parties."

It is probably true that the extreme drought which lasted into the open season, compelling large game to seek lakes and rivers for water, made it much easier to capture them early in October.

The number of shipments each month of open time were as follows : October, 62 moose, 39 caribou, 896 deer ; November, 16 moose, 19 caribou, 623 deer ; December, 25 moose, 47 caribou, 402 deer. It is probable, however, that in November and December more animals were taken by our own citizens for home consumption per month than in October, and that the shipments of November and December represent a smaller per cent of all the animals taken than in October because most of our non-resident sportsmen have come and gone by the middle of open time.

Greater vigilance is being used for the protection of these animals in the close season. During December 1895, and in the early part of January 1896, practically every lumber camp in our Maine forests will be visited by wardens, most of them have been prior to the date of this report. This work will be continued until the forests are again deserted by the lumbermen. In this work we find an increasingly friendly sentiment among all the lumbermen and operators visited, and all or nearly all have aided us by furnishing information to and entertainment for the warden, and express themselves as pleased to have this work done, and we are glad to report that in nearly every case owners and operators have adopted the rule that they will not countenance the killing of large game or have it in their possession or about their camps and forbid their men molesting it. We are glad to be able to report this condition of things for when the lumber interests and the fish and game interests which are so intimate in their relation, can work together for the same end, it will go far



towards the final settlement of game preservation. Arrangements have been completed for guarding the Canadian border against the encroachments of deep snow and crust hunters from the Canadian side of the line, and men will be stationed there as soon as the conditions require it.


By chapter 50, Public Laws of 1895 the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries and Game were authorized, upon application, to license such persons as taxidermists whom, in their judgment, are skilled in that art, of good reputation, and friendly to the fish and game laws of this State. Such licenses to be in force for three years unless sooner revoked. Commissioners were also by said act authorized to establish rules, restrictions, and limitations relating to the shipment of fish and game or parts thereof to such licensed taxidermists.

There have been licensed under this act during the year fourteen persons, as follows : August 3, 1895, Sumner L. Crosby, Bangor ; August 3, 1895, Frank M. Richards, Farmington ; August 3, 1895, T. Adolph Lagasse, Old Town; August 17, 1895, John Clayton, Lincoln ; September 7, 1895, M. Abbot Frazar, Greenville ; October 14, 1895, C. M. Hoxie, Fox-croft ; October 14, 1895, F. L. Morrill, Bangor ; October 15, 1895, W. R. Gilford, Skowhegan; October 15, 1895, William Cooper, Milo ; October 15, 1895, Granville M. Gray, Old Town ; October 23, 1895, Lincoln C. Daniels, Portland ; December 2, 1895, William H. Merrow, Bethel ; December 11, 1895, Grant Fuller, Eustis ; December 30, 1895, William Atkins, Ox Bow.

Said rules and regulations which are made a part of the license are as follows : “Whoever transports to this licensee any fish or game, or parts thereof, and which is not accompanied by the owner thereof', shall transport it open to view, tagged and plainly labeled with his name and residence ; and shall state upon such label when, where and by whom the same was caught or killed, the name and residence of the owner thereof, and that such fish or game or



part thereof is transported for the sole purpose of having the same prepared for, and mounted ; and shall forthwith forward by mail a duplicate copy of such label to the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries and Game, at Augusta, Maine."

A shipping tag was also issued in conformity with these regulations (and which, is furnished to taxidermists and others desiring them) in the following form, to wit:

"Transportation of Fish and Game under chapter 50, Public Laws of 1895, and regulations of Inland Fish and Game Commissioners authorized thereby.

To__________of_______ Me., a licensed taxidermist, for
the sole purpose of having the same prepared for and mounted by him.
This__________is shipped open to view, and was caught or
killed on the_____day of____at______, by_______ of_____________
and is the property of ___________

A duplicate copy of this label is. forwarded by mail to the Commissioners of Fisheries and Game, Augusta, Maine.

_________of_______, Shipper.


Our principal game bird is the partridge or ruffled grouse. The close time on these birds was changed at the last session of the legislature so that they are protected until September 20th instead of September 1st as formerly. The number of birds taken in the open time of 1895 was larger than for many years, and the quality of the birds was superior, they being well grown and full fledged.

The increase may be largely accounted for by the favorable weather during their hatching season, followed by a dry summer favorable to the development of the chicks. The success or failure in rearing the grouse in any given year is largely dependent upon the condition of the weather both in summer and winter, a great many of the young birds being destroyed by severe cold rain storms in the spring and early summer, and the full grown birds are often destroyed in large numbers by being imprisoned be-



-neath the damp, crusted snows of winter ; so that their increase in 1895, we think, may be largely accounted for by the absence of both these unfavorable conditions.

The woodcock is still found in considerable numbers in Maine, but as it is a migratory bird, neither Maine protection nor conditions can have very much to do with its increase or decrease. From the beginning of open time in Maine, September 1st, until it returns from its southern flight the following spring, it is compelled to run the gauntlet of gun and dog. We think that unless some interstate regulation for the protection of these birds can be secured, that their presence in Maine as an important game bird is destined to be short lived.

In 1894, the sportsmen of the State through E. G. Gay, Esq., president of the Maine Game Protective Association, commenced the introduction, into our Maine forests, of the capercailzie and black game of Norway and Sweden. Both these birds belong to the grouse family they are bud eating, hardy, and indigenous to a country similar in conditions to that of Maine. This effort on the part of said association was partially a failure on account of their attempt to breed these birds in captivity, and while they were able to secure some chicks, all died in a few days from hatching.

The Commissioners believe that their introduction might be successfully accomplished by bringing the birds here and liberating them in our forests and allowing them to select their own breeding, ground unrestrained and have made arrangements through Hon. W. W. Thomas, Ex-United States Minister, for a shipment of fourteen of these birds which are to arrive in New York early in March and from thence they will be taken to Maine by express and liberated in our forests. If this experiment should prove a success and a colony can be started, then others may be liberated in different sections of the State.




The resolve of the legislature, approved March 26, 1895, appropriating twenty-five thousand dollars for each of the years 1895 and 1896, directed that said sums be expended by the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries and Game under the direction of the Governor and Council, and among other provisions of said resolve, required that said Commissioners should make a detailed statement in their report, of all expenditures of money thereunder. In compliance with such provision we have the honor to submit herewith our annual report of the expenditures therein authorized.

Appropriations for the fish and game department have always as now, been expended by the Commissioners under the direction of the Governor and Council. Itemized accounts covering these expenditures are examined and approved by the Commissioners, and are audited and allowed and warrants drawn for their payment by the Governor and Council. These accounts are on file in the executive department. Under an arrangement between the Governor and Council and the Commissioners, the warrants for the payment of these accounts are drawn for the amount due each month in bulk, the amount of warrant deposited, and checks drawn by C. E. Oak, a member of the Board of Commissioners, in payment of the several accounts approved.

The original account, however, under this arrangement is still on file with the Governor and Council who have examined and allowed the same, and a duplicate thereof remains with the Commissioners in the hands of Mr. Oak at the Land Office at the State Capitol. The following is a detailed statement of the sums of money drawn at ten different times during the year 1895, showing the different objects for which said appropriation has been expended, and the total amount expended for each subdivision of the year, and the total for the entire year.

Table 1 Part 1


Table 1 part 2