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United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries

REPORT ON THE CONDITION OF THE SEA FISHERIES
OF THE SOUTH COAST OF NEW ENGLAND IN 1871 AND 1872.__ pdf of cover

By Spencer Franklin Baird, commissioner.

With supplementary papers.

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PART I. REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER.__ 41 page pdf .

TABLE OF CONTENTS html __ pdf

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PART 2. SUPPLEMENTARY PAPERS

TABLE OF CONTENTS__ pdf version

II. GENERAL PLAN OF INQUIRIES PROSECUTED 1
Memoranda of inquiry relative to the food-fishes of the United States 1
Questions relative to the food-fishes of the United States 3

III. TESTIMONY IN REGARD TO THE PRESENT CONDITION OF THE FISHERIES, TAKEN IN 1871
Newport, Rhode Island 7
Naushon Island, Massachusetts 32
Pasqua Island, Massachusetts 34
Menemsha Bight, Martha's Vineyard 36
Edgartown, Martha's Vineyard 37
Nantucket, Massachusetts 41
Hyannis, Massachusetts 47
Wood's Hole, Massachusetts 63
Head of Buzzard's Bay 70
Cohasset Narrows 72

IV. SPECIAL ARGUMENTS IN REGARD TO REGULATING THE SEA-FISHERIES BY LAW 73
Samuel Powel, of Newport. Delivered in the Rhode Island legislature. (Urging the necessity of a scientific inquiry into the subject) 73
J. M. K. Southwick, of Newport. (Against protective legislation) 76
Geo. H. Palmer, of Near Bedford. (In favor of protective legislation) 88

SPECIAL ARGUMENTS re FISHERY LAW PART 2

V. REPORTS OF STATE COMMISSIONS IN REGARD TO REGULATING THE SEA-FISHERIES BY LAW 104
Report of committee of Rhode Island legislature, made at Newport, June 15, 1870 104
Legislative enactment recommended---- 110
Extract from report for 1871 of Theodore Lyman, Massachusetts commissioner of inland fisheries, on the possible exhaustion of sea-fisheries 112
Remarks of Mr. Atwood, of the Cape district, before the Massachusetts Senate, in relation to the petition to prohibit net and seine fisheries 117

VI REPORT OF CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER WITH COMMISSIONERS, OF RHODE ISLAND AND MASSACHUSETTS, HELD OCTOBER 5, 1871. 125

VII DRAUGHT OF LAW PROPOSED FOR THE CONSIDERATION OF, AND ENACTMENT BY, THE LEGISLATURES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, AND CONNECTICUT 132
A bill to regulate the use of stationary apparatus in the capture of fish. 132

VIII MISCELLANEOUS CORRESPONDENCE AND COMMUNICATIONS ON THE SUBJECT OF THE SEA FISHERIES 135
Letters 135
Copy of memorial of citizens of Hyannis, addressed to Congress, praying that laws may be passed prohibiting the use of fixed apparatus for capturing fish 137

For detailed table of contents of the report of the commissioner see p.V.

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IX. EUROPEAN AUTHORITIES ON THE SUBJECT OF REGULATING THE FISHERIES BY LAW 139
On the fisheries of the Gulf of Naples, by Achille Costa 139
On the possibility of exhausting the seafisheries, by James G. Bertram 141
Extract from the London Field 144
Extract from the report of the commissioners appointed to inquire into the sea fisheries of the United Kingdom, presented to both houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty 145

X. NOTICES IN REGARD TO THE ABUNDANCE OF FISH ON THE NEW ENGLAND COAST IN FORMER TIMES 149

XI. STATISTICS OF FISH AND FISHERIES ON THE SOUTH SHORE OF NEW ENGLAND. 173

Table I. Amount of fish taken at Menemsha Bight, Martha's Vineyard 173
Table II. General return of the Waquoit weir for 1871 174
Table III. Return of dog-fish and bluefish at Waquoit weir for seven years. 175
Table IV. Consolidated returns of alewives, shad, menhaden, bass, blue-fish, and dog-fish, at Waquoit weir, for seven years 176
Table V. Days of first appearance of alewives, scup, bluefish, and menhaden, at Waquoit weir, for thirteen years. 176
Table VI. Account of bluefish caught with a line by Josiah C. Pease, about Edgartown, Massachusetts, 1865-1871 177
Table VII. Account of fish landed at Baxter's Wharf, Hyannis, in 1870 and 1871 178
Table VIII. Account of Austin Taylor, Hyannis, for 1870 and 1871 178
Table IX. Account of Timothy Crocker, Hyannis, 1867-1871. 179
Table X. Account of J. G. Loring, Hyannis, 1867-1871. 179
Table XI. Shipment of fish by railroad from Hyannis, monthly to Now York,1866-1871 179
Table XII. Statement of fish caught at Wood's Hole, Massachusetts, in 1872 180
Table XIII Catch of fish at West Falmouth Pound. 181
Table XIV. Date of first appearance of fish at the pounds and weirs on the south side of New England 181

XII. SUPPLEMENTARY TESTIMONY AND INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE CONDITION OF THE FISHERIES ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF NEW ENGLAND IN 1872. 182

Notes taken by the Commissioner 183
Newport, Rhode Island 183
Wood's Hole, Massachusetts 183
New York 186

Report of Vinal N. Edwards 187
Nantucket 187
Edgartown 188
Hyannis 190
Martha's Vineyard 191
Lambert's Cove 191
Vineyard Haven 192

Additional notes taken by the Commissioner. 193

XIII. PLEADINGS BEFORE THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON FISHERIES 0F THE RHODE ISLAND LEGISLATURE, AT ITS JANUARY SESSION OF 1872. 196
Argument of J. Talbot Pitman in favor of a law prohibiting the use of traps and pounds in Rhode Island 196
Abstract of an address by Captain Nathaniel E. Atwood in opposition to legislation. 293

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XIV. NATURAL HISTORY OF SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT FOOD-FISHES OF THE SOUTH SHORE OF NEW ENGLAND Page 228
I. The scup Page 228
II The bluefish Page 235

XV. DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS USED IN CAPTURING FISH ON THE SEA-COAST AND LAKE OF THE UNITED STATES Page 253

Modes of capture Page 253
Projectiles, explosives, and poison Page 253
Lines Page 254
Nets Page 255
Traps, weirs, pounds, and fykes Page 259
Location of traps, weirs, and pounds in the United States. Page 273

XVI. LIST OF PATENTS GRANTED BY THE UNITED STATES TO THE END OF 1872 FOR INVENTIONS RELATIVE TO THE CAPTURE, UTILIZATION, OR CULTIVATION OF FISH AND MARINE ANIMALS 275
1. Hooks 275
2. Lines, grapples, traps, &c 276
3. Reels 276
4. Rods 276
5. Floats, sinkers, and swivels 277
6. Projectiles. 277
7. Nets and pounds
8. Oyster culture and gathering 278
9. Preservation and utilization of fish 278
10. Fish-culture 279
11. Patents granted prior to 1836 279

XVII. LIST OF THE SEAWEEDS OR MARINE ALGAE OF THE SOUTH COAST OF NEW ENGLAND
BY W.G. Farlow, M.D. 281

XVIII REPORT UPON THE INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF VINEYARD SOUND AND THE ADJACENT WATERS, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OF THE REGION.
By A. E. Verrill. __ Table of Contents *** Index of this article 295

A. Habits and distribution of the invertebrate animals 295

I. General remarks 295

II. Fauna of the bays and sounds 300

1. The rooky shores 303
List of species 331

2. The sandy shores 334
List of species 364

3. The muddy shores 366
List of species 377

4. The piles and timbers of wharves and bridges, bottoms of vessels, buoys, and other submerged wood-work 378
List of species 392

5. The rocky bottoms 394
List of species 409

6. The gravelly-shelly bottoms. 412
List of species 425

7. The sandy bottoms 425
List of species 428

8. The muddy bottoms 430
List of species 434

9. The free-swimming and surface animals 436
List of species 451

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XVIII REPORT UPON THE INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS, &C. Continued.

10. Animals, parasitic, on fishes, &c 455
List of species 459

III. Fauna of the estuaries, harbors, ponds, and marshes 460

1. The sandy shores and bottoms of brackish waters 462
List of species 464

2. The muddy shores and bottoms of brackish waters 465
List of species 470

3. The oyster-beds in brackish water 472
List of species. 476

4. The eel-grass in brackish waters 478
List of species 480

5. The piles of wharves, bridges, floating timber, rocks, &c., in brackish waters 481
List of species 482

IV. Fauna of the ocean shores and outer colder waters 484

1. The rocky shores off the open coast 485
List of species. 486

2. The sandy shores off the open coast 489
List of species 490

3. The rocky bottoms off the open coast 491
List of species. 498

4. The sandy and gravelly bottoms off the open coast 500
List of species 504

5. The muddy bottoms off the open coast. 506
List of species 511

B. Lists of species found in the stomach of fishes - food of fishes. 514

C. The metamorphoses of the lobster and other crustacea
by S.I. Smith. 522

D.Catalogue of the marine invertebrate animals of the southern coast of New England, and adjacent, waters,
by A. E. Verrill, S. I. Smith, and Oscar Harger 537

Articulata 539
Insects 539
Arachnids 544
Pycnogonidae. 544
Crustacea 545
Annelids 580

Scolecida 627
Turbellarin 627

Mollusca 634
Cephalopods 634
Gastropods 636
Lamellibranchists 669
Tunicata 698
Bryozoa. 707

Radiata 715
Echinodermata 715
Acalephae 722
Polypi or Anthozoa 737

Protozoa 740
Spongiae 740

Addenda 745

Errata 749

Table of contents 751

E. Alphabetical index to report of A. E. Verrill . 455

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XIX. CATALOGUE OF THE FISHES OF THE EAST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA;
by Theodore Gill 779

XX. LIST OF FISHES COLLECTED AT WOOD'S HOLE IN 1871, BETWEEN JUNE 20 AND OCTOBER 4,
by S. F. Baird 823

XXI. TABLE OF TEMPERATURES TAKEN IN WOODS HOLE HARBOR, FROM JANUARY 1, 1873, To DECEMBER 31,1873 828

XXII LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 833

XXIII. ALPHABETICAL INDEX 835

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ERRATA.

Page 10, for "there is no bottom" read "there is a bottom." Page 261, for "Seabass, 2,500 barrels," read "Seabass, 2,500 pounds ; "flat-fish, 1,000 barrels," read "1,000 pounds;" "tautog, 500 barrels" read "500 pounds;" "bass, 700 barrels," read "700 pounds" "mackerel, 200 barrels," read "200 pounds."

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